"ˇVayan subiendo!" - "Everybody mount up!" This was
the command Anza sang out to begin the expedition's travels. The order
of the train was specific with Anza coming first followed by the colonists
Graphic: Bill Singleton
Driving Directions for Auto Route
From the international border, the trail heads due north, paralleling
Nogales Wash and later follows along the Santa Cruz River. Travel
north from the Port of Entry on Business Loop I-19, and connect
with northbound I-19. Visit historic sites tied to the Anza expedition
such as Tumacácori National Historical Park and Tubac Presidio
State Historic Park. To continue on the route, see Pima
Along the several miles of trails in Río Rico, look for
two stone trail orientation signs. There is a 4.5-mile trail between
Tumacácori and Tubac (off of I-19) managed by the Anza
Trail Coalition of Arizona and open to the public. The trail
also extends north from Tubac for about a mile. It is about 1.25
miles from either trailhead to the first river crossing. The frontage
road along Interstate 19 offers biking opportunities.
Photo: Ron Ory
Tumacácori (above), pronounced Toomah- káh-core-ee,
is located on 45 acres and contains the ruins of three missions.
The missions at San José de Tumacácori and Los
Santos Ángeles de Guevavi were both established around
1691 and are the two oldest missions in Arizona. Mission San
Cayetano de Calabasas derives its name from the Spanish word
calabaza. This refers to the wild yellow gourds (Cucurbita
foetidissma) that grow nearby. Guevavi is likely from
a Piman word.
An ongoing project (Mission
2000) at Tumacácori involves imaging and translating
Spanish documents. It has shown that many Anza expedition
families raised children, lived and worshiped nearby.
A. Las Lagunas and Expedition Camp #13
This campsite in Nogales is at a cienaga, or marsh,
which is in private hands. It can be viewed by taking exit
5 off of northbound I-19 to Country Club Drive North and turning
west. Park in the St. Andrew's Church parking lot, but do
not overstay your welcome, since it's private land. The Desert
Shadows Middle School in Nogales is home to a large Anza
B. Río Rico Trail
Starting at the staging area parking lot off of Río
Rico Rd., several miles of trail parallel Anza's route. From
here, one can bike or walk to Tumacácori if it's not
too hot. Look for several small stone trail signs.
National Historical Park
Mission San José de Tumacácori is located on
highway I-19 about 18 miles north of Nogales, and was first
listed in 1691 as an outlying visita (a mission station
without a resident priest) by the famous Jesuit missionary
Father Eusebio Francisco Kino. By 1701, the village was a
visita of the mission at Guevavi, and in 1771, Tumacácori
was made the head mission of the district, and Guevavi was
abandoned. San Cayetano de Calabasas is the adobe remnants
of a site first occupied about 1756 as a Spanish mission visita.
Father Pedro Font held mass here on October 17, 1775, as the
expedition moved toward Tubac. Construction of the present
mission church was begun around 1802. The visitor center is
a National Historic Landmark and includes a museum. Visits
to Calabasas and Guevavi can be arranged at the park's headquarters.
A trail connects Tumacácori and Tubac along the Santa
Cruz river through beautiful riparian habitat containing cottonwoods
and mesquite. Look for several large ramadas enclosing
interpretive panels about Anza's expeditions and the natural
history of the area.
Presidio State Historic Park and Expedition Camp #14
Anza served as the Presidio de San Ignacio de Tubac's second
commander from 1760-1776. About fifty cavalrymen were stationed
at this remote outpost, founded in 1752 in response to an
uprising by the local Akimel O'odham (Pima) tribe.
Anza's house, made of adobe bricks, was located here in what
is now Tubac Presidio State Historic Park (four miles north
of Tumacácori, Tubac Rd. and Presidio Dr.). The adjacent
area was the old Tubac Barrio (community). Today, it's
managed by the Archeological Conservancy, and they arrange
visits. A group called Los Tubaqueños offers period
interpretation at the park. A re-enactment of the expedition's
passage through Tubac takes place annually during the Anza
About the Anza
Expedition in Santa Cruz County
From Father Font's Diary, Sunday, October
22, 1775 (Campsite 14)
"I said Mass for the success of the journey of the expedition, all
the people attending, and Father Garcés assisted because
in the presidio there were no other singers. After the gospel I
made a talk or brief sermon suitable to the purpose... I reminded
them of the punishment which God might mete out to them if they
mistreated the heathen on the way or scandalized them by their conduct...all
the people of the expedition being assembled and everything necessary
being arranged, it was decided to continue the journey next day
[October 23 at eleven o'clock in the morning]...
Franciscan priest Father Pedro Font,
diarist and Chaplain of the 1775-1776 Anza Expedition.
I may note that the order observed on the march during the whole journey
was as follows: ...As soon as the pack trains were ready to start,
the commander would say, 'Everybody mount.' Thereupon we all mounted
our horses and at once the march began, forming a train in this fashion:
Ahead went four soldiers, as scouts to show the road. Leading the
vanguard went the commander, and then I came. Behind me followed the
people, men, women, and children, and the soldiers who went escorting
and caring for their families. The lieutenant with the rear guard
concluded the train. Behind him the pack mules usually followed; after
them came the loose riding horses and mules; and finally all the cattle,
so that altogether they made up a very long procession...
Then, we began to march, I intoned the Alabado, to which all
the people responded; and this was done every day both going and coming.
When the campsite was reached, after all the people had dismounted
the lieutenant came to report to the commander whether everything
had arrived, or if something had remained behind, in order that he
might give suitable orders. At night the people said the Rosary in
their tents by families, and afterward they sang the Alabado, the
Salve, or something else, each one in its own way, and the result
was a pleasing variety."
Diary - First page
"Diary of the march and explorations which I, the undersigned lieutenant
colonel and captain of the Royal presidio of Tubac in the province
and government of Sonora , am making a second time from the foregoing
province to northern California. By order of the most excellent Señor
Baylio Frey Don Antonio María Bucareli y Ursúa, Viceroy,
Governor, and Captain-General of New Spain, as is shown by his superior
decree of the 24th of November of the past year of 1774, for the purpose
of escorting thirty soldiers with their commander and sergeant to
the California named, for the reinforcement of the Royal Presidio
of San Carlos de Monte Rey, and for the establishment of the port
of San Francisco, all married and all recruited in the province named,
and whose women and children and other dependents are set forth more
at length below, together with the total number of those going upon
What's in a name?
wrote his name with a rubric, that dramatic squiggle
at the end of the last letter. A personal rubric served
to identify the writer, and to prevent forgery of
About Juan Bautista
de Anza in Santa Cruz County
A clean-shaven Anza ready for the
Graphic: David Rickman
Don Juan Bautista de Anza was 39 years old when the 1775-76 colonizing
expedition left for California. He was born in Fronteras in Sonora,
New Spain, in 1736. His father, also named Juan Bautista, was the
commander of the Presidio at Fronteras; he was killed in a battle
with the Apache Indians there when Juan was three or four years
In 1751, during the Pima (Akimel O'odham) rebellion, he joined
the volunteer soldiers. By the time he was 19, he was lieutenant
at the Presidio in Fronteras. When his commander died suddenly in
1759, he became the Captain at Tubac. He married Ana María
Pérez Serrano in 1771. Anza was asked to defend the royal
settlements and presidios against the Apache and Seri Indians until
1773, and he carried out his duty with honor and distinction. In
1774, he asked permission to prove that a land route from Tubac
to Monterey in Alta California was possible. The Viceroy
of New Spain, Don Antonio Bucareli, granted him this assignment.
Anza's father had made the same request many years before, but died
before he could do so. With the help of American Indians, the younger
Anza succeeded in carrying out his father's dream.
One of several unsubstantiated portraits
of Juan Bautista de Anza.
First of all, there was Sebastián Tarabal, an American Indian
and a native of Baja California, who had accompanied Gaspar
de Portolá during his California expedition from Baja California.
Sebastián had recently crossed the torturous desert from Mission
San Gabriel (now near Los Angeles) to Northern Sonora. He was Anza's
guide through the desert on the first expedition (1774). In addition,
Anza befriended Chief Salvador Palma of the Quechan tribe (called
the Yuma Indians during Anza's time), knowing that having the peaceful
cooperation of his tribe was essential during crossing of the Colorado
River near their villages. Anza and his 34 men succeeded at reaching
San Gabriel and Monterey, then the most northern outpost of the Spanish
Empire. Anza's first expedition to California was a success.
When Anza returned to Sonora (now in Mexico), he was rewarded and
promoted to Lieutenant Colonel. In 1775, he was given orders to recruit
soldiers with families, and to escort them to Alta California
so that they could establish a colony at the port of San Francisco.
In spring of 1775, he began recruiting and enlisting soldiers with
families starting in the town of Culiacán (in Sinaloa), and
swept northward on his campaign. He must have made a convincing argument,
since he could offer them only an immediate salary as well as food,
clothing, and transportation to a land that was wilderness and a great
Anza was away on two trips to Alta California; his wife remained
in Tubac. Anza would be away for about eight months during the 1775-76
colonizing expedition serving his king, Carlos III of Spain.
About the Anza
Expedition in Santa Cruz County
Graphic: Wade Cox
Equipping the Colonists from Hair Ribbons to
The Anza expedition had to carry the supplies needed to keep the
group safe, fed, and healthy. Almost all of it was carried by mules.
Don José de Echeveste drew up a detailed
list of estimated costs for Anza's 1775-1776 expedition on December
5, 1774. He calculated it in the money of the time, Spanish pesos
eight reales being worth one peso; 45 1/2 reales was
equivalent to about one (1998) U.S. dollar.
colonists were provided for from head to toe. Clothing for the
men consisted of: 3 good linen shirts, 3 pairs of underdrawers of
Puebla cloth, 2 cloth jackets with lining and trimming, 2 pairs
of breeches (trousers), 2 pairs of stockings, 2 pairs of buckskin
boots, 3 pairs of buttoned shoes, 1 cloth cape lined with thick
baize (flannel), 1 hat, 2 blankets, and ribbon for the hat and their
hair. Don José estimated a cost of 42 pesos and 1 real for
each man, and in addition, a typical soldier was to be paid one
Graphic: David Rickman
Graphic: Bill Singleton
The wardrobe for each woman cost 6 reales less than the man's. Women
were given 3 chemises (shirts), 3 pairs of white puebla cotton petticoats,
1 baize and 1 serge skirt and an underskirt, linen for 2 jackets,
2 pairs of Brussels stockings, 2 pairs of hose and shoes, 2 rebozos
(at 12 reales each), a hat and 6 varas of ribbon to trim it all up.
Children's clothing would have been homemade; materials provided included
bolts of cloth, ribbon, fine rope, and shoes of all sizes for both
Food rations included cattle (one for each day), 30 loads of flour
for tortillas, pinole, kidney beans, 6 cases of ordinary chocolate,
white sugar, soap, and 3 barrels of aguardiente (brandy) for
"needs that arise." As it turned out, this would be used for the expedition's
fandangos. For cooking, there were 8 iron pans, 10 copper campaign
kettles, and 12 large chocolate-pots.
Military supplies included a flag with the royal coat of arms, 11
tents of unbleached canvas, 20 carbines (rifles), 10 ball cartridges,
40 leather flasks for gun powder, swords and lances, 22 leather jackets,
plus gear for the horses and pack mules. Tools included 4 Biscayan
hatchets with a steel edge, 4 spades, 4 shovels, a crow-bar, 1 tool
chest. There were also 2 blank books for military registers and the
diaries. Without these we would know much less about the expedition.
Thanks to the diaries, we can read about the daily trials of the expedition
over 225 years after they made their journey.
And let's not forget that there were gifts for the American Indians
that Anza would meet along the way, including 6 boxes of beads. A
blue cloth cloak, a jacket and buckskin beeches were given to the
the chief of the Quechan tribe at Yuma (Salvador Palma). When all
was accounted for, the expedition cost less than $500 U.S. dollars.
That's a pretty good investment on the part of the Spanish government
to secure the claim it had to California and the west.
by Martha Ann Francisca Vallejo-McGettigan, descendant
of Feliciana Arballo.
baby in a Rebozo
Drawing by Tamra Fox
The cost estimate for Anza's 1775-1776 expedition
made by Don José de Echeveste shows two
rebozos were issued for each woman, and
materials were provided so that they could be
made for girls. The fact that two of this common
head covering were provided by the King suggests
that these were indispensable. The rebozo
is considered to be the most important garment
used by women on the Spanish frontier. It is worn
as a shawl, as a wrap in which to carry a baby,
or loosely flung on the arm. Its other uses are
as a head covering, to preserve modesty when breast
feeding, to provide warmth, or to carry things.
Plays, poems and songs have been written about
the rebozo, and to this day, it is the
symbol of dress for a large class of Mexican society.
Its dimensions were typically 28-34 inches wide
and 84 inches in length (with a fringe). It can
be made of wool, linen, cotton, or a combination
of cotton and silk. Colors during Anza's time
would be blue, red, striped, or black. According
to Donald Garate, there were 92 children under
the age of twelve on the expedition. Six were
under the age of two, five under one year and
five born while traveling to Tubac. The mothers
would be nursing these children as well as keeping
them close. There are various ways to hold a child
with a rebozo while riding a horse. On the trail,
a woman would add a hat, jacket, ride astride
for safety, and use the rebozo for carrying
a young child.
Anza Trail Coalition of Arizona - P.O. Box 42612, Tucson,
On the CD: Introduction and The Alabado
Introduction and Donald T. Garate, Anza
historian and Chief of Interpretation at Tumacácori
National Historic Park, talks about Anza and the history and
significance of the Anza trail.
The Alabado. Father Font mentions this song several times
in the diary, including at Tubac on October
22, 1775 regarding its daily use. Unfortunately, Font's
Alabado is not known today with any certainty. There were
several Alabados; the name comes from alabar, "to praise".
Although Alabados were used by Catholic priests in New Spain,
it was not part of the Church's official music for Mass. According
to Dr. Keith Paulson-Thorp, former Director of Music at the
Mission Santa Barbara, the version we know today comes from
Fernando Cardenas, "Fernandito," an American Indian at Mission
Santa Inéz who learned it years after the Missions
had been secularized.