U.S. National Park Service
Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail Saguaro National Park
Saguaro National Park

Photo: Ron Ory
  Pima County - La Canoa to Oit Par

Counties on the trail from south to north: 

To download as a PDF, click here (726 Kb). Viewable with Adobe Acrobat Reader 
Map of Juan Bautista de Anza trail in Pima County

Driving Directions for Auto Route

From Santa Cruz County, follow I-19 north into Pima County. Look for several interpretive panels near expedition campsites. Visit the area of La Canoa at the roadside rest stop. Stop at Mission San Xavier del Bac. In Tucson, stop near the area of Congress St. and visit Sentinel Peak and the Santa Cruz River Park. Leaving Tucson, drive northwest on I-10 to Pinal County. For an in depth local tour, see Local Auto Route below.

Hiking/Biking Ideas

Stroll the grounds at Mission San Xavier del Bac, or walk along the Santa Cruz river near Camps # 16 or 18, or at the Santa Cruz River Park in Tucson. Use the Anza Trail Coalition of Arizona brochure for guidance.

Soldado de Cuera statue in downtown Tucson
A Soldado de Cuera statue guards downtown Tucson.

Photo: Bill Singleton

Local Auto Route

Take the I-19 frontage road to the entrance to Canoa Ranch, where the route briefly returns onto I-19. At Continental Rd., exit and go left to Duval Mine Road. Continue west to Mission Road. Turn right and travel for several miles to Congress St. and downtown Tucson. Past Sentinel Peak, turn left on Congress St. to Silverbell Rd., and left on Lambert Road to Airline Road. Turn right on Airline Road and left on Avra Valley Rd. to Sanders Road. Turn right on Sanders Rd. to Silverbell Road. Continue north on Silverbell Road to Trico-Marana Road. Turn east to I-10 north of Marana.

Trail at La Canoa
The area around La Canoa

Photo: Bill Singleton
  About Your Visit to Pima County

Over 240 people set out from Tubac on October 23, 1775. The first night out, the settlers suffered their only death en route when María Ignacia Manuela Piñuelas Féliz died from complications from childbirth. They stopped at Mission San Xavier del Bac on October 25, 1775 to mourn the death of Manuela, and to celebrate three marriages of the expedition's members. They then followed the Santa Cruz River northward.


Sites of Interest

A. La Canoa and Expedition Camps #15 and #16
La Canoa (the "watering trough") was the first campsite after the expedition left its final assembly point at Tubac. Here on the evening of October 23rd, José Antonio Capistrano Féliz was born feet first, and his mother, María Ignacia Manuela Piñuelas Féliz, died the next morning. Father Font and the colonists said the Rosary and sang the Salve de la Virgen de los Dolores for the deceased as they reached Punta de los Llanos (Camp #16). Father Garcés and four soldiers went ahead to the Mission with Manuela's body. Near Camp #15, look for an interpretive sign at a roadside rest area along I-19 near Canoa Ranch.

B. Mission San Xavier del Bac and Expedition Camp #17
Established by Jesuit Father Kino in 1692 at the site of an existing Piman (Akimel O'odham) village, the mission was under Franciscan control when the expedition stopped here on October 25, 1775. Father Thomás Eixarch of the expedition baptized baby José. He made it to Mission San Gabriel in California, but died about nine months later. Construction of the present mission church was started in 1783. Located off I-19 along the Santa Cruz River, it is a part of the Tohono O'odham reservation. The mission church, an active parish, has a museum.

C. Pueblo de Tuquison and Expedition Camp #18
The garrison of the presidio of Tubac was moved to Tucson in 1776 after the expedition left, and was renamed San Agustín de Tuquison (Tucson). In 1775, Father Font remarked that it was a visita of San Xavier del Bac, meaning that it was a place that the missionaries visited, but was not permanently occupied. Today, the name is spelled Tucson, and several of its downtown museums highlight the area's history. These include the Tucson Museum of Art, the Arizona State Museum, and the Arizona Historical Society. To view the route of the expedition from a higher vantage point, try nearby Sentinel Peak. The Santa Cruz River Park in Tucson contains a multi-use trail within the historic corridor. El Paseo de los Árboles, "The Pathway of the Trees," is located along the west bank of the Santa Cruz River Park between Irvington Rd. and Ajo Way, and a tree there is dedicated to Anza.

D. Saguaro National Park and Expedition Camps #19 and #20
The name of Camp #19, Puerto del Azotado, stems from the punishment of two muleteers who tried to run away, but were captured by Indians at Anza's request. The name Oitpar (Camp #20) is thought to mean 'Old Town' in O'odham, and refers to the site of a village destroyed by Apaches. Along the way today, Saguaro National Park offers a spectacular view of the desert as it appeared to the expedition. The cactus and other plants found there give visitors an idea of the raw materials available to the local peoples.

  Learning On The Trail in Pima County
Mission San Xavier in Tucson

Questions on the Trail

Note: Answers will appear in new windows. Please close those windows when finished.

Which expedition members got married at Mission San Xavier?
See the answer at the Mission 2000 Database.

What did Father Font write in his diary on that day?
To find the answer, go to the Calendar of Father Font's diary and click on the date of the wedding.

Mission San Xavier del Bac

Photo: Ron Ory
Anza found it so important to be able to communicate in their language that he asked the Viceroy to allow him to hire an O'odham translator and pay him as much as many of Anza's Spanish soldiers. It was worth it; on his 1774 expedition, a native named Luis warned Anza in the O'odham language that he might be in danger from the natives near Yuma.
English O'odham of 1776
hello Sa:pi kahide?
Answer to "hello" Pi hasa.
goodbye Ant o em-nehi.
You are in danger. Heg 'o s-ta-ebidama.
Come this way. Inai aigo amt o hihi.
north du:pin
south vakolim
east si'al ta:gio
west huruni ta:gio
water su:dagi
river akimeri
desert tohono
Casa Grande Va:ki
Birth and death at La Canoa
Birth and Death at La Canoa Graphic: Bill Singleton

Learn more about the expedition and see more illustrations by Bill Singleton at the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail in Pima County.

On the CD: Birth and Death

Sound of a newborn baby. At La Canoa, a baby boy was born on the first night out of Tubac. The only death on the way from Tubac to San Francisco occurred here too, the child's mother, María Ignacia Manuela Piñuelas Féliz.

Virgen de Los Dolores. Father Font says that on the way, he and the colonists said the Rosary for Manuela, and that he finished by singing the Salve of the Virgin of Los Dolores. Although there is a song of that name, Font may have been referring to the Salve Regina. In his diary entry for October 23, 1775, he mentions that the colonists often sang "the Salve," and it's believed that the Salve Regina was probably the chant he was referring to.

O'odham Language and O'odham Song: "Sunrise". Two American Indian peoples that Anza had contact with in what is today's Pima County are the Tohono O'odham and Akimel O'odham. The language of these tribes was very similar. Languages change over time, and the O'odham words one can hear today are not quite the same as in 1775-76. Given on the audio track are some words that Anza might have heard his interpreter say and how they'd be pronounced today. Can you pronounce them?

Click to play baby crying and chants MP3 audio file

Play MP3 file of Birth and Death: Baby crying, Salve de la Virgen de los Dolores, Salve Regina.
Lance Beeson (Guitar), John Warren (Choral)
(playing time 2 minutes 16 seconds)

Click to play O'odham Language and song MP3 audio file

Play MP3 file of O'odham Language and O'odham Song, Sunrise.
David Shaul and John Ignacio (Words), Lance Beeson (Flute)
(playing time 2 minutes 10 seconds)

Additional Resources

Anza Trail Coalition of Arizona - P.O. Box 42612, Tucson, AZ 85733-2612

Mission San Xavier del Bac - 1950 W. San Xavier Rd., Tucson, AZ 85746;
tel.: 520-294-2624,
web: sanxaviermission.org

Tohono O'odham Nation, San Xavier District - 2018 W. San Xavier Rd, Tucson, AZ 85746;
tel.: 520-573-4000,
web: tocaonline.org

Arizona Historical Society Second Street Museum - 949 E. Second St, Tucson, AZ 85719;
tel.: 520-628- 5774,
web: arizonahistoricalsociety.org

Arizona State Parks and Recreation Dept.
tel.: 602-542-4174,
web: pr.state.az.us

Arizona State Museum - University of Arizona, 1013 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721;
tel.: 520-621-6302,
web: statemuseum.arizona.edu

City of Tucson Parks and Recreation Dept. - 900 South Randolph Way, Tucson, AZ 85716;
tel.: 520- 791-4873,
web: tucsonaz.gov

Saguaro National Park - 3693 South Old Spanish Trail, Tucson, AZ; 85730; tel.: 520-733-5153,
web: nps.gov/sagu

Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail in Pima County,
web: pima.gov/areainfo/anza

O'odham warriors
O'odham warriors
Graphic: Wade Cox

Back to Juan Bautista de Anza Trail Guide Homepage.

Listen to tracks on the Anza Trail Guide CD.

Learn more about the Anza Trail CD and Music.

Learn more about the Anza Trail Guide Project.

Look up names, locations and terms in the Glossary.

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