This glossary gives several of the important words useful in understanding
the Juan Bautista de Anza Trail and the material in the Trail Guide.
While incomplete, it gives a place to start so that sources given
in the Bibliography can be consulted.
Aguardiente - brandy, liquor, spirits.
Álamos - A Real de Minas, or mining town, with a branch of
the Royal Silver Bank.
Alcalde - Mayor, person of authority over a settlement.
Alférez - Ensign
Alta - Upper (as opposed to Baja, or lower)
Altar - Valley, town and presidio; southwest of present-day
American Indian (Native American) - A person whose ancestors
were in North or South American before Europeans arrived.
Amole - A ground food made of grains or nuts. In California,
American Indians made acorn amole.
Anza, Juan Bautista de - Anza was born in 1735 or 1736 at
the Fronteras Presidio, Sonora. He married Ana Maria Regina Perez
Serrano in 1761. In 1774, he was Capitán of the Presidio of Tubac,
and from January 8, 1774 to March 15, 1774, he traveled from the
Tubac Presidio to Alta California, first to Mission San Gabriel
and then to the Monterey Presidio in Alta California. This is known
as his first expedition to California, and its purpose was to establish
that a direct route was possible. He was then made Teniente Coronel
(Lieutenant Colonel) in His Majesty's Cavalry. He made a second
journey to Alta California, starting in October 1775 to bring
over 200 colonists to found the Mission and Presidio of San Francisco.
Upon his return to Mexico City from Alta California, he was
made Comandante (Commander) of all the troops of Sonora,
and took up residence at his command post, San Miguel de Horcasitas,
the capital of Sonora. While in that position, he learned that he
had been appointed Governor of New Mexico. He died December 19,
1788 in Arizpe, Sonora and is buried in the church there.
Arizpe - is on the Río Sonora, and was the capital of the
Ayala, Juan de - Commander of His Majesty's packet boat,
the San Carlos, and first to sail into the San Francisco
Bay. He named several of the landmarks in the Bay Area.
Barrio - community, neighborhood, district.
Bucareli y Ursúa, Antonio María - Viceroy of New Spain, 1717-1779.
In this capacity, he had the authority of the Spanish Government
to grant Anza's requests for his expeditions to California, and
it is to him that Anza reported his success and progress.
Carpintero - Carpenter; also, a woodpecker.
Casa Grande - (literally means "Big House") and is an ancient
Hohokam city ruin between present-day Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona.
Culiacán - a village in the province of Sinaloa where the
first colonists were recruited.
Diaz, Juan - Born in 1736 in Alazar (Seville) Spain, he went
with Anza on the first expedition to Mission San Gabriel (now near
Los Angeles) and back to Tubac. He kept a diary of that expedition.
On July 17, 1781, he was killed in the Yuma Indian uprising along
with Father Garcés
Don - A title meaning "Sir". In Spanish California, land
owners were called Dons.
Echeveste, Juan José de - During the time of Anza's expeditions,
he was Purchasing Agent for the Californias (Alta and Baja). He
calculated the probable cost of the second Anza expedition and put
together a detailed budget for it.
Eixarch, Tomás - Born in 1742 in Spain, he was a Franciscan
priest who had been ministering at Mission Tumacácori when he was
assigned to go in company with Father Garcés on the second Anza
expedition (the colonizing expedition of 1775-1776) as far as the
Colorado River. Anza had a cabin built for Father Garcés and him,
and he remained there (Nov. 30, 1775- May 11, 1776) on the west
side of the river across from what is today Yuma, Arizona, working
with the Quechan Indians until Anza's return. He then returned with
Anza to Sonora.
Fandango - A lively Spanish or Spanish - American dance.
Fanegas - A Spanish measure of harvested crops which was
equivalent to approximately 100 pounds of corn or beans; or 82 pounds
of wheat or flour.
Font, Pedro - Born in 1738 in Gerona, Catalonia, Spain, he was a
Franciscan missionary at San Jose de Los Pimas (Sonora) in 1775.
He was Chaplain and diarist of the second Anza expedition to California.
He wrote two diaries of the expedition.
Fronteras - Presidio thirty miles south of present-day Douglas,
Arizona where Anza was born.
Franciscans - Members of a religious order founded by Saint
Francis of Asisi (1182?-1226 A.D.) in 1206 A.D. St. Francis was
an Italian Catholic friar known for his simple life, his imitation
of Christ's marks of the crucifixion, his kindness to lepers and
his love of nature.
Fuerte, El - "The Fort" in English; an early-day Spanish
Presidio in the province of Sinaloa at the time of the Anza expeditions.
Garcés, Francisco Hermenegildo - A Franciscan priest from
Aragón in Spain who went with Anza on the first expedition, and
on the second expedition as far as the Colorado River. There, he
started missionary activities among the Quechan (at Yuma). He died
at the Colorado River in the Yuma uprising of 1781.
Grijalva, Juan Pablo - In 1775, he was the Sargento who joined
the second Anza expedition at Tubac (Sonora) to go to Alta California.
Horcasitas, San Miguel de - Presidio and town in Sonora northeast
of present-day Hermosillo. It was an assembly point for the second
Jesuit - A member of the Society of Jesus, a Catholic order
founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 A.D.
League - 1 league is about 2.56 miles.
Loreto - A Presidio, a Mission and a Pueblo (town) in Baja
Mestizo - of mixed Spanish and Indian blood.
México - city; capital of New Spain. Today, the name applies
to the whole country.
Monterey, San Carlos de - Spanish California's northern most
Presidio in Anza's time; it was later the capital of Alta California.
Present-day city of Monterey, California.
Moraga, Jose Joaquín - Born in 1741, by 1775, he was Alférez
(2nd Lieutenant) at the Fronteras Presidio in Sonora. During the
second Anza expedition (1775-1776), he was second in command, and
was charged with taking the settlers from Monterey to San Francisco
where he founded the Mission and Presidio. He was made Teniente,
and in 1777 Comandante, of the new Presidio. He also founded San
José, California and the nearby Mission Santa Clara. He died on
July 13, 1785 in San Francisco and is buried at the foot of the
altar at Mission Dolores.
Nuevo - New
Padrino - Godfather
Palm - This comes from the Spanish word "palmo" and is a
measurement of the length from the extended tip of the thumb to
the tip of the little finger on a large hand; it is about 8.277
Palma, Salvador Carlos Antonio - He was chief of the Quechan
tribe at Yuma. His name in his native language was Olleyquotequiebe.
Anza gave him the name Salvador Palma during his first expedition
to California. The two men developed a genuine friendship and Captain
Palma, as he became known, was critical to the success of both the
first and second expeditions, in that he and his tribe helped the
soldiers and colonists cross the Colorado River. Upon Anza's return
to Yuma from California in 1776, Palma insisted on going with him
to Mexico City so that he might present his case to Viceroy Bucareli
for missions and a presidio on his lands. Anza took Palma, his brother
and two other members of the tribe to Mexico City where the Viceroy
gave them high honors in October of 1776. After being baptized there
in the Cathedral, Anza escorted them to Horcasitas where Presidio
soldiers escorted them the rest of the way back to their village.
The relationship between the Spanish and the members of the Quechan
was not guarded by subsequent expeditions, and in July of 1781,
they revolted, killing Father Garcés, three other priests, and several
soldiers and settlers at the newly formed mission and settlement
there. As far as the Spanish were concerned, this effectively closed
the Anza Trail.
Paquebot - A Packet (or supply) Ship. The San Carlos
was such a ship.
Papaguería - general area of the Papago (O'odham) Indians
between Altar and the Gila River.
Pérez Serrano, Ana Maria Regina - Married Anza June 24, 1761.
Pimería - general area of the Pima (O'odham) Indians between
Santa Ana and the Gila River.
Psaltery - A type of small, trapezoidal harp. In Spanish,
it is called a Psalterio.
Puerto - Port.
Puerto Dulce - Suisún Bay near Carquínez Strait, northeast
of the San Francisco Bay.
Quadrant - A surveying instrument resembling a protractor
that allows the measurement of the sun, or other astronomical body,
to be measured relative to the horizon. It can be used to determine
one's latitude. In more modern times it was replaced by the sextant
and, most recently, by Global Positioning Systems.
Querétaro, Santa Cruz de - Apostolic College for all the
Franciscans serving in northern New Spain; north of Mexico City.
Ranchería - An Indian village.
Real - Royal
Rivera y Moncada, Fernando de - Commander of all the troops
in Alta California. It was his responsibility to govern and
protect the settlers that Anza brought to Alta California,
and to see to it that the new settlement at San Francisco and San
José would be established. Unfortunately, for a myriad of reasons,
he was more of an obstacle than a help. He was reassigned, and he
died in the Quechan uprising at Yuma in July 1781. He is credited
as leading the expedition that established the Pueblo of Los Angeles
San Blas - A town and shipping center on the West Coast of
Mexico in Nayarit.
San Gabriel - Name of a city and a former Franciscan Mission
in Alta California near presentday Los Angeles.
San Xavier del Bac - A Mission just south of present-day
Serra, Junípero - Franciscan priest who was the father president
of all the missions in Alta California. He was instrumental in their
creation, and founded nine of the twenty-one missions.
Sinaloa - A state in present-day Mexico located south of
Sonora, Mexico. It is the name of a small town in the state of Sinaloa
formerly called Villa de San Fernando y Santiago de Sinaloa, now
called Sinaloa de Leyva. It is were Anza began recruiting settlers
for the 1775-76 expedition to California.
Soldado - Soldier.
Sonora - A province in New Spain, and a state in present-day
Mexico located south of Arizona.
Span - 1 span is about 9 inches.
Tardeada - A march done in two stages. It is so named because
the party would leave in the afternoon instead of the morning (i.e.,
por la tarde.)
Terrenate - Presidio due east of present-day Nogales, Sonora.
Tubac - Presidio; present-day town south of Tucson, Arizona.
Tuquison, (Tucson) San Agustín del - site for a presidio
that was being established during the expedition's layover at Horcasitas
presently under concrete and pavement in downtown Tucson, Arizona.
Vaqueros - Cowboys
Valdes, Juan Bautista - Soldado on Portola's 1769
expedition to San Diego. He also carried dispatches to Mexico as
a courier. In 1773, he carried one to Anza from Viceroy Bucareli
that gave authorization for Anza's expedition. In 1774, he was a
guide and courier on the first Anza expedition.
Vara - A measure of length. The Spanish vara is about 0.836
meters or 33 inches (5,000 varas are in a league, which equals about
2.6 miles). A vara was a measurement of roughly one yard (2.7424
Viceroy - The governor of a country or province who rules
in the place of the king.